तत्त्द् गतिवशन्नित्यं यथा दृक्-तुल्यतां ग्रहाः।
प्रयान्ति तत्प्रवक्ष्यामि स्फ़ुटिकरणमादरात्॥
सुर्य सिद्धान्त ॥

यस्मिन् पक्षे यत्र काले येन दृग्गणितैक्यम्।
दृश्यते तेन पक्षेण कुर्यात्तिथ्यादिनिर्णयम्॥

यात्राविवाहोत्सवजातकादौ खेटैः स्फुटैरेवफलस्फुटत्वम्।
स्यात्प्रोच्यते तेन नभश्चराणां स्फुटक्रिया दृग्गणितैक्यकृद्या॥

तिथिर्विष्णुस्तथा वारो नक्षत्रं विष्णुरेव च।
योगश्च करणं चैव सर्वं विष्णु मयं जगत्॥


Thursday, March 20, 2008

RigVeda Upakarma / Yajurveda Upakarma / Avani Avittham / Shravana Upakarma / Samaveda Upakarma 2008

Yajurveda Upakarma 2008:

The Indian day is from sunrise to sunrise. The tithi visible at the time of sunrise is the usually tithi for the festival. But There are rules when to observe a certain festival. In case of Upakarma the rule is checked for any contamination during upakarma ahoratra -- that is from one midnight to another midnight. If there is an eclipse and/or samkranti (Ravi samkramana) on the sharvani poornima (appearing after the previous midnight and before coming midnight) then Upakarma cannot be performed on the day of shravani poornima(Dharmasindhu, Nirnay sindhu) thithi visible at the sunrise. This is because it contaminates the entire poornima by that timeframe (midnight to midnight). Normally the Simha samkramana contaminates sixteen ghatikas (16*48 minutes= 12 hours and 48 minutes) before the samkramana time (Dharmasindhu, muhurtha chintamani). That time is known as a punyah kala and it needs to be avoided in shubha karma. But, tn the case of upakarma according to the Dharmasindhu and the Nirnaysindhu it contimates the entire timeframe of midnight to midnight, and hence upakarma cannot be performed on such day when this happens. There is a samkranti (Ravi samkramana) and eclispe on the day of yajur upakarma in 2008. Hence the yajur upakrama cannot be performed on that day (When poornima appears on the sunrise). Yajur upakarma's main kala is shravani poornima -- Poornima in the month of shravan. When poornima and samkranti (Ravi samkramana) or eclipse combine together that day shouldn't be taken for upakarma. If you follow yajurveda then please look for your sutra in the following table. You'll know your sutra from your abhivadaye. Most common sutras in Shree Krishna Yajurveda are: Apastama, Bodhayana. North indians follow Shukla Yajurveda (Their shakhas are kanva, madhyandina, and katyayana). People refer to the later day shastras and interpretations when eclispe or samkranti happens on the upakarma day. However, grihya sutras clearly say what to do. They say the upakarma cannot be performed during eclipse, and/or samkranti apeears in the upakarma ahoratra period. Additionaly they say that the first upakarma cannot be performed when there is a guru-sukra (jupiter, venus) are closer to sun (asta, moodyami, helical settings). They don't mention about grahana or samkranti in the first upakarma exception. However, certain people refer to later day shastras and make it exception.

Contention as per Drika Siddhanta: This year sharvani poornima falls on August 16th 2008 and the Lunar eclipse is from 18:22 to 23:58 as per GMT timings. In india (Aug 16) 23:52 to 5:28 AM (Aug 17). USA PDT 11:22 to 16:58. Now Simha ravi samkramana occurs at GMT 11:49 AM, India 17:19, USA PDT 4:49 AM, USA EDT 7:49 AM. Now all these time falls between the window of the timeframe that is midnight before August 16 (After the midnight of August 15th) and the midnight of August 16th (before August 17th). Now as per dharmashastra for all other festivals sunrise to sunrise is counted as a day. Only for upakarma's nirnay midnight to midnight is taken. Hence, both ravi samkramana and eclipse occurs during this timeframe upakarma cannot be performed on August 16th. However, for vakya sidhdhanta their samkramana occurs at 51:39 (ghati/nazhi : pala/vinadi). They take from Tanjor's sunrise timings. This converts to 20 hours and 39 minutes after their sunrise. Let's see August 16th sunrise is at 6:00 AM then their samkramana occurs after midnight of 16th and hence they argue it's okay to perform upakarma on August 16th. As far as eclipse is concerned their argument is it's not visible and if it's visible it's in the evening and hence, it's not applicable. This goes against dharmashastra. The vakyam's planetory position can't be observed in the sky using telescope. The planetory positions using drika siddhanta can be observed in the sky using telescope. Drika siddhanta is more accurate. Even our sages have said use precise calculations. Vakyam was written many centuries back. Planetory positions and movements keeps changing. Moon needs corrections after every 75 years. Moon as per brown's table takes pages of corrections, how can you define moon's speed in one sentense? Vakyam panchang makers silently copies eclipse information from western ephemeries. Now you decide when you want to perform upakarma? We have given following table for upakarma dates.

Note: Certain mutts interpret that this samkranti and grahana rule applies to first upakarma only. while other majority of mutts have decided that it's applied to all upakarmas. However Dharmasindu and Nirnaysindhu and many other shastras donot mention that this rule is applicable to first time upakarma only. They do mention that upakarama cannot be done when grahana, and samkranti appears on shravani (The time frame explained above from midnight to midnight). Most of us believe that first or subsequent upakarma cannot be done during eclipse or samkranti.

Taitariya shakha(Hiranyakeshi): Shravani Poornima if not available hasta nakshatra in shravana.

Bodhyana sutra: Shravani Poornima if not available Aashadha month's poornima.

Aapasthamba sutra: Shravani Poornima if not available Bhadrapada month's poornima. Different sutras in yaajush shakha have specified differnt kalas when the upakarma can't be performed during the mail kala.

Madhyandina, kanva, kaatyayana shakha: Shravani Poornima if not available panchami, or hastha nakshatra yukta panchami in the month of shravan. If these are still not available they can perform on bhadrapada poornima.

Rigveda Upakarma 2008: Rigveda Upakarma's main kala is Srvana masa and srvana nakshatra. When combined with eclipse or samkranti that day cannot be taken. When it happens take Hasta nakshatra or panchami. The samkranti contaminates shravana nakshatra in Europe, Gulf, India, China, Japan, Singapore, Malaysia, Australia and other eastern countries. Where as it remains untouched in USA/Canada as per dharmasindhu.

Samaveda Upakarma 2008: Samaveda upakarma date is not combined with samkranti or eclipse and hence Bhadrapada, Hasta nakshatra can be taken.

Question comes when these dates falls in 2008?

Please click on http://www.mypanchang.com/ and click on 2008's panchangam.
Please scroll down to find your city and click on city name. Click on the August on the top bar when panchangam comes. This is shravana month. For Bhadrapada month lick on september. For ashadha masa please click on July. Please try to apply the rules explained above.

Please refer to the following table of upakarma dates in year 2008. (PST, MST, CST, and EST are USA/ Canada's Time Zones). Due to samkranti and eclispe on shravani poornima Upakarma cannot be performed on shravani poornima.

Year 2008India





RigvedaAug 6 Aug 15 Aug 15 Aug 15 Aug 15
Aug 6 Aug 5 Aug 5 Aug 5 Aug 5
BodhayanaJuly 18 July 17 July 17 July 17 July 17
AapasthambaSep 15 Sep 14 Sep 14 Sep 14 Sep 14
Shukla YajurvedaAug 6 Aug 5 Aug 5 Aug 5 Aug 5
SamavedaSept 2 Sept 1 Sept 2 Sept 2 Sept 2

Year 2008

South Africa

Arabian Gulf


RigvedaAug 6 Aug 6 Aug 6
Aug 6 Aug 6 Aug 6
BodhayanaJuly 18 July 18 July 18
AapasthambaSep 15 Sep 15 Sep 15
Shukla YajurvedaAug 6 Aug 6 Aug 6
SamavedaSept 2Sept 2Sept 2

To find out today's star or looking for a panchangam? visit http://www.mypanchang.com/ and click on panchanga and select the city you want.

Article: Pandit Mahesh Shastri, Dr. Ramachandra Joisa

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